Communication and Cultural Competence orientation terminology

  • Refers to the processes that occur when diverse individuals or groups of people meet and exchange aspects of their culture.

  • Refers to the techniques used to try and decrease or increase a particular behaviour or reaction.

  • A system of medical diagnosis that solely addresses physiological factors and excludes the possible effects of psychological or social factors. It fosters the theory that mental and social factors have no influence on biological diseases.

  • A system which states that health and illness are determined by a dynamic interaction between biological, psychological and social factors.

  • A framework that identifies and describes the abilities physicians require to effectively meet the health care needs of the people they serve. These abilities are grouped thematically under seven roles: medical expert, communicator, collaborator, leader, health advocate, scholar and professional. A competent physician seamlessly integrates the competencies of all seven CanMEDS roles.

  • The facility or ability of an individual to understand the nature and consequences of his or her decisions. Some jurisdictions interchange "capacity" with "competence."

  • An individual's permission or agreement for something to happen or to be done. View the Canadian Medical Protective Association's website for more information on the different types of consent.

  • This type of communication involves an understanding of how people from different cultures express themselves, how they communicate verbally, in the written form and nonverbally, and how they perceive the world around them.

  • The range of personal, social, cultural, economic and environmental factors that influence an individual's health status are known as determinants of health.

  • The assessment process that considers the likelihood that a patient will develop a disease rather than other potential diseases.

  • The process by which health care providers communicate medical information or other relevant information to a patient.

  • A patient's deliberate and inappropriate use of more than one physician in order to obtain prescriptions for a greater amount of medications than would be prescribed by a single physician.

  • The physician-patient relationship creates a series of obligations including the requirement, as appropriate, to attend, diagnose, advise, treat and consult with other physicians.

  • Generally refers to mandatory legal or professional obligations for health professionals:
    1. Legal obligations to notify government or other agencies of certain patient conditions or situations. These obligations override the legal and professional duty to keep patient information confidential. The suspicion of child abuse is an example of one such situation.
    2. Professional obligations to report to regulatory authorities (Colleges) certain professional issues, or suspicions of prohibited behaviours, related to other health professionals.

  • Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) serve as practical markers of performance relevant to clinical practice that can demonstrate achievement of competence; EPAs represent what physicians do in daily practice and typically cover multiple milestones from multiple CanMEDS roles.

  • The giants of geriatrics are: immobility, instability, incontinence and intellectual impairment. They have in common: multiple causation, common course, deprivation of independence and no simple cure.

  • Consent to treatment may be implied or it may be specifically expressed, either orally or in writing. Consent in emergency situations is an important exception to the general rule that consent must always be obtained. Treatments under emergency circumstances must be limited to situations with demonstrable severe suffering, or an imminent threat to life, limb or health.

  • Cultural sensitivity is not only being aware that cultural differences and similarities exist between people but refraining from judging them by assigning them a value e.g., positive or negative, better or worse, right or wrong.

  • The MCC Role Objectives describe the attributes expected of medical graduates entering supervised and independent practice in Canada.

  • Medical case management is a collaborative process between health professionals that facilitates the development of recommended treatment plans to assure that appropriate medical care is provided.

  • A mental status examination (MSE) is an assessment, at the time of evaluation, of a patient's level of cognitive (knowledge-related) ability, appearance, emotional mood, and speech and thought patterns. It includes the examiner's observations about the patient's attitude and cooperativeness, as well as their answers to specific questions.

  • The principles of natural justice and fair process can be reduced to the following central issue: Did the decision-making body, on the facts of the particular case, act fairly to the person whose conduct or rights were under consideration?

    The common law requires tribunals to provide a certain minimum of procedural fairness, which includes the right to be heard, to have one's case decided by persons free of bias, and to receive reasons for decisions made.

  • Patient-centred care is the practice of caring for patients (and their families) in ways that are meaningful and valuable to the individual patient. It includes listening to, informing and involving patients in their care. Providing care that is respectful of, and responsive to, individual patient preferences, needs and values, and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions.

  • Characteristics of patient's explanatory model:
     Specific to each episode of illness
     Calibrated to practical realities and pressing problems
     Focused on one's own experience, frustrations, sources of knowledge, and resources at hand
     Informal logic, tacit connections
     Driven by immediate, practical needs
     Applied in "emergency" contexts
     Influenced by family, friends, community
     Justified by embodied experience and utility in mastering symptoms and disabilities

  • The notions about an episode of sickness and its treatment that are employed by physicians. These can include:
     Etiology
     Time and mode of onset
     Patophysiology
     Course (including symptom severity and trajectory: acute, chronic, impaired
     Recommended treatment

  • A standard of behaviour that is deemed appropriate and expected for a mentally stable or "reasonable" person under particular circumstances.

  • Every physician's scope of practice is unique. A physician's scope of practice is determined by the patients the physician cares for, the procedures performed, the treatments provided, and the practice environment.

    A physician's ability to perform competently in his or her scope of practice is determined by the physician's knowledge, skills and judgment, which are developed through training and experience.

    A change in scope of practice occurs when there have been significant changes to any of the elements set out in part 2 of the definition. If a physician has changed practice such that he or she is practicing outside of what would be considered the usual scope of practice for the discipline, then his or her scope of practice may have changed significantly.

  • The key integrated clinical skills that are found in a good physician become a set of habitual behaviours indicative of overall competence. These sentinel habits have consistently proved useful and useable by clinicians providing assessment and feedback of colleagues in the clinical workplace. They provide a solid foundation for any workplace-based assessment of competence.

  • A collaborative relationship between a patient and their therapist.

  • The overall perspective from which a person sees and interprets the world around them.

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